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Authors: Troise, Claudia* 
De Natale, Giuseppe* 
Schiavone, Roberto* 
Somma, Renato* 
Moretti, Roberto* 
Title: The Campi Flegrei caldera unrest: Discriminating magma intrusions from hydrothermal effects and implications for possible evolution
Issue Date: 2019
Series/Report no.: /188 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.11.007
Abstract: The Campi Flegrei caldera in Southern Italy is one of the most populated active volcanoes on Earth. It has an unprecedented record of historical unrest and eruption that dates back to 2.2 ka BP and provides key insights for understanding the dynamic evolution of large calderas. Since 1950, it has undergone four episodes of caldera-wide uplift and seismicity, which have raised the coastal town of Pozzuoli, near the centre of unrest, up to 4.5 m and triggered the repeated evacuation of some 40,000 people. After about 20 years of subsidence, following the uplift peak reached in 1984, the caldera started a new, low rate uplift episode, accompanied by low magnitude seismicity and marked geochemical changes in fumaroles. In this area it is crucial to discriminate episodes of shallow magma intrusion from hydrothermal perturbations, which are both able to generate unrest signals. In this paper, by a critical review of previous literature and some new results, we discriminate, in the unrest episodes, the relative contributions of hydrothermal effects and shallow magma intrusions. Our review is aimed also to show the different behavior of the largest unrest episodes, such as the 1982–1984, and the present, ungoing unrest characterized by smaller rate but longer lasting uplift. We show that for the former, larger uplift of the 80's, there is clear evidence for shallow magma intrusion, and we are able to compute the amount of intruded magma volume. For the present, on-going uplift, on the contrary, there is no evidence for magmatic activity at shallow depth. As a main result of our analysis, we demonstrate here the present unrest, characterized by much lower uplift rates and seismicity, is only interpretable as due to large gas fluxes coming from the deeper magma reservoir; without any appreciable contribution from shallow magma or recent magmatic intrusion. Our results shed new light on the interpretation of caldera unrest worldwide, and clearly indicate the most constraining data and the most rigorous procedures of data analysis for a correct interpretation of volcanic unrest
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