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Authors: Storto, Andrea* 
Martin, Matthew J.* 
Deremble, Bruno* 
Masina, Simona* 
Title: Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Experiments with Linearized Ocean–Atmosphere Balance Relationships
Journal: Monthly Weather Review 
Series/Report no.: /146 (2018)
Issue Date: 2018
DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0222.1
Abstract: Coupled data assimilation is emerging as a target approach for Earth system prediction and reanalysis systems. Coupled data assimilation may be indeed able to minimize unbalanced air–sea initialization and maximize the intermedium propagation of observations. Here, we use a simplified framework where a global ocean general circulation model (NEMO) is coupled to an atmospheric boundary layer model [Cheap Atmospheric Mixed Layer (CheapAML)], which includes prognostic prediction of near-surface air temperature and moisture and allows for thermodynamic but not dynamic air–sea coupling. The control vector of an ocean variational data assimilation system is augmented to include 2-m atmospheric parameters. Cross-medium balances are formulated either through statistical cross covariances from monthly anomalies or through the application of linearized air–sea flux relationships derived from the tangent linear approximation of bulk formulas, which represents a novel solution to the coupled assimilation problem. As a proof of concept, themethodology is first applied to study the impact of in situ ocean observing networks on the near-surface atmospheric analyses and later to the complementary study of the impact of 2-m air observations on sea surface parameters, to assess benefits of strongly versus weakly coupled data assimilation. Several forecast experiments have been conducted for the period from June to December 2011. We find that especially after day 2 of the forecasts, strongly coupled data assimilation provides a beneficial impact, particularly in the tropical oceans. In most areas, the use of linearized air–sea balances outperforms the statistical relationships used, providing a motivation for implementing coupled tangent linear trajectories in four-dimensional variational data assimilation systems. Further impacts of strongly coupled data assimilation might be found by retuning the background error covariances.
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