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Authors: Pinardi, Nadia* 
Özsoy, Emin* 
Latif, Mohammed Abdul* 
Moroni, Franca* 
Grandi, Alessandro* 
Manzella, Giuseppe* 
De Strobel, Federico* 
Lyubartsev, Vladyslav* 
Title: Measuring the Sea: Marsili’s Oceanographic Cruise (1679–80) and the Roots of Oceanography
Journal: Journal of Physical Oceanography 
Series/Report no.: 4/48(2018)
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Issue Date: Apr-2018
DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-17-0168.1
Keywords: Ocean
Density currents
Ship observations
Abstract: The first in situ measurements of seawater density that referred to a geographical position at sea and time of the year were carried out by Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsili between 1679 and 1680 in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Marmara Sea, and the Bosporus. Not only was this the first investigation with documented oceanographic measurements carried out at stations, but themeasurements were described in such an accurateway that the authorswere able to reconstruct the observations in modern units. These first measurements concern the ‘‘specific gravity’’ of seawaters (i.e., the ratio between fluid densities). The data reported in the historical oceanographic treatise Osservazioni intorno al Bosforo Tracio (Marsili) allowed the reconstruction of the seawater density at different geographic locations between 1679 and 1680. Marsili’s experimental methodology included the collection of surface and deep water samples, the analysis of the samples with a hydrostatic ampoule, and the use of a reference water to standardize the measurements.Acomparison of reconstructed densities with present-day values shows an agreement within 10%–20% uncertainty, owing to various aspects of the measurement methodology that are difficult to reconstruct from the documentary evidence. Marsili also measured the current speed and the depth of the current inversion in the Bosporus, which are consistent with the present-day knowledge. The experimental data collected in the Bosporus enabledMarsili to enunciate a theory on the cause of the two-layer flow at the strait, demonstrated by his laboratory experiment and later confirmed by many analytical and numerical studies.
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