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Authors: Storto, Andrea* 
Masina, Simona* 
Simoncelli, Simona* 
Iovino, Doroteaciro* 
Cipollone, Andrea* 
Drevillon, Marie* 
Drillet, Yann* 
von Schuckmann, Karina* 
Parent, Laurent* 
Garric, Gilles* 
Greiner, Eric* 
Desportes, Charles* 
Zuo, Hao* 
Alonso Balmaseda, Magdalena* 
Peterson, Andrew K.* 
Title: The added value of the multi-system spread information for ocean heat content and steric sea level investigations in the CMEMS GREP ensemble reanalysis product
Journal: Climate Dynamics 
Series/Report no.: 1-2/53 (2019)
Issue Date: 2019
DOI: 10.1007/s00382-018-4585-5
Abstract: Since 2016, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) has produced and disseminated an ensemble of four global ocean reanalyses produced at eddy-permitting resolution for the period from 1993 to present, called GREP (Global ocean Reanalysis Ensemble Product). This dataset offers the possibility to investigate the potential benefits of a multi-system approach for ocean reanalyses, since the four reanalyses span by construction the same spatial and temporal scales. In particular, our investigations focus on the added value of the information on the ensemble spread, implicitly contained in the GREP ensemble, for temperature, salinity, and steric sea level studies. It is shown that in spite of the small ensemble size, the spread is capable of estimating the flow-dependent uncertainty in the ensemble mean, although proper re-scaling is needed to achieve reliability. The GREP members also exhibit larger consistency (smaller spread) than their predecessors, suggesting advancement with time of the reanalysis vintage. The uncertainty information is crucial for monitoring the climate of the ocean, even at regional level, as GREP shows consistency with CMEMS high-resolution regional products and complement the regional estimates with uncertainty estimates. Further applications of the spread include the monitoring of the impact of changes in ocean observing networks; the use of multi-model ensemble anomalies in hybrid ensemble-variational retrospective analysis systems, which outperform static covariances and represent a promising application of GREP. Overall, the spread information of the GREP product is found to significantly contribute to the crucial requirement of uncertainty estimates for climatic datasets.
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