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Authors: Cherchi, Annalisa* 
Fogli, Pier Giuseppe* 
Lovato, Tomas* 
Peano, Daniele* 
Iovino, Doreteaciro* 
Gualdi, Silvio* 
Masina, Simona* 
Scoccimarro, Enrico* 
Materia, Stefano* 
Bellucci, Alessio* 
Navarra, Antonio* 
Title: Global mean climate and main patterns of variability in the CMCC-CM2 coupled model
Issue Date: 13-Dec-2018
DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001369
Abstract: Euro‐Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change coupled climate model (CMCC‐CM2) represents the new family of the global coupled climate models developed and used at CMCC. It is based on the atmospheric, land and sea ice components from the Community Earth System Model coupled with the global ocean model Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean. This study documents the model components, the coupling strategy, particularly for the oceanic, atmospheric, and sea ice components, and the overall model ability in reproducing the observed mean climate and main patterns of interannual variability. As a first step toward a more comprehensive, process‐oriented, validation of the model, this work analyzes a 200‐year simulation performed under constant forcing corresponding to present‐day climate conditions. In terms of mean climate, the model is able to realistically reproduce the main patterns of temperature, precipitation, and winds. Specifically, we report improvements in the representation of the sea surface temperature with respect to the previous version of the model. In terms of mean atmospheric circulation features, we notice a realistic simulation of upper tropospheric winds and midtroposphere geopotential eddies. The oceanic heat transport and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation satisfactorily compare with present‐day observations and estimates from global ocean reanalyses. The sea ice patterns and associated seasonal variations are realistically reproduced in both hemispheres, with a better skill in winter. Main weaknesses of the simulated climate are related with the precipitation patterns, specifically in the tropical regions with large dry biases over the Amazon basin. Similarly, the seasonal precipitation associated with the monsoons, mostly over Asia, is weaker than observed. The main patterns of interannual variability in terms of dominant empirical orthogonal functions are faithfully reproduced, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere winter. In the tropics the main teleconnection patterns associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation and with the Indian Ocean Dipole are also in good agreement with observations.
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