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Authors: Barani, Simone* 
Mascandola, Claudia* 
Riccomagno, Eva* 
Spallarossa, Daniele* 
Albarello, Dario* 
Ferretti, Gabriele* 
Scafidi, Davide* 
Augliera, Paolo* 
Massa, Marco* 
Title: Long-range dependence in earthquake-moment release and implications for earthquake occurrence probability
Issue Date: 28-Mar-2018
Series/Report no.: /8(2018)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-23709-4
Abstract: Since the beginning of the 1980s, when Mandelbrot observed that earthquakes occur on 'fractal' self-similar sets, many studies have investigated the dynamical mechanisms that lead to self-similarities in the earthquake process. Interpreting seismicity as a self-similar process is undoubtedly convenient to bypass the physical complexities related to the actual process. Self-similar processes are indeed invariant under suitable scaling of space and time. In this study, we show that long-range dependence is an inherent feature of the seismic process, and is universal. Examination of series of cumulative seismic moment both in Italy and worldwide through Hurst's rescaled range analysis shows that seismicity is a memory process with a Hurst exponent H ≈ 0.87. We observe that H is substantially space- and time-invariant, except in cases of catalog incompleteness. This has implications for earthquake forecasting. Hence, we have developed a probability model for earthquake occurrence that allows for long-range dependence in the seismic process. Unlike the Poisson model, dependent events are allowed. This model can be easily transferred to other disciplines that deal with self-similar processes.
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