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Authors: Barberio, Marino Domenico* 
Gori, Francesca* 
Barbieri, Maurizio* 
Billi, Andrea* 
Devoti, Roberto* 
Doglioni, Carlo* 
Petitta, Marco* 
Riguzzi, Federica* 
Rusi, Sergio* 
Title: Diurnal and Semidiurnal Cyclicity of Radon (222Rn) in Groundwater, Giardino Spring, Central Apennines, Italy
Journal: Water 
Series/Report no.: /10(2018)
Issue Date: 2018
DOI: 10.3390/w10091276
Keywords: radon concentration
water table
;Earth tide
central Apennines
Abstract: Understanding natural variations of Rn (222Rn) concentrations is the fundamental prerequisite of using this radioactive gas as a tracer, or even precursor, of natural processes, including earthquakes. In this work, Rn concentrations in groundwater were continuously measured over a seven-month period, during 2017, in the Giardino Spring, Italy, together with groundwater levels in a nearby well installed into a fractured regional aquifer. Data were processed to reduce noise, and then analyzed to produce the Fourier spectra of Rn concentrations and groundwater levels. These spectra were compared with the spectrum of tidal forces. Results showed that diurnal and semidiurnal cycles of Rn concentrations, and filtered oscillations of groundwater levels, in the nearby well, are correlated with solar and luni-solar components of tidal forces, and suggested no correlation with the principal lunar components. Therefore, influencing factors linked to solar cycles, such as daily oscillations of temperature and atmospheric pressure, and related rock deformations, may have played a role in Rn concentrations and groundwater levels. An open question remains regarding the correlation, which is documented elsewhere, of Rn concentrations and groundwater levels with the lunar components of the solid Earth tides.
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