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Authors: Bianchi, Maria Giovanna* 
Casula, Giuseppe* 
Cuccuru, Francesco* 
Fais, Silvana* 
Ligas, Paola* 
Ferrara, Concetta* 
Title: Three-dimensional imaging from laser scanner, photogrammetric and acoustic non-destructive techniques in the characterization of stone building materials
Journal: Advances in Geosciences 
Series/Report no.: /45 (2018)
Publisher: Copernicus
Issue Date: 27-Jul-2018
DOI: 10.5194/adgeo-45-57-2018
Keywords: Architectural monumental structures
Structural Diagnosis
Digital Color Images
3D Terrestrial Laser Scanner
Acoustic tomography
Petrographical data
3D Modeling
Subject ClassificationCultural Heritage
Architectural Elements ND Diagnosis
Abstract: Abstract. When combined, the three-dimensional imaging of different physical properties of architectural monumen- tal structures acquired through different methodologies can highlight with efficiency the characteristics of the stone building materials. In this work, we compound high res- olution Digital Color Images (DCI) and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) data for a dense 3-D reconstruction of an ancient pillar in a nineteenth century building in the town of Cagliari, Italy. The TLS technique was supported by a digital photogrammetry survey in order to obtain a natural color texturized 3-D model of the studied pillar. Geometri- cal anomaly maps showing interesting analogies were com- puted both from the 3-D model derived from the TLS ap- plication and from the high resolution 3-D model detected with the photogrammetry. Starting from the 3-D reconstruc- tion from previous techniques, an acoustic tomography in a sector of prior interest of the investigated architectural ele- ment was planned and carried out. The ultrasonic tomogra- phy proved to be an effective tool for detecting internal decay or defects, locating the position of the anomalies and estimat- ing their sizes, shapes, and characteristics in terms of elastic- mechanical properties. Finally, the combination of geophysi- cal and petrographical data sets represents a powerful method for understanding the quality of the building stone materials in the shallow and inner parts of the investigated architectural structures.
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