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Authors: Bani, Philipson* 
Alfianti, Hilma* 
Aiuppa, Alessandro* 
Oppenheimer, Clive* 
Sitinjak, Pretina* 
Tsanev, Vitchko* 
Saing, Ugan B.* 
Title: First study of the heat and gas budget for Sirung volcano, Indonesia
Journal: Bulletin of Volcanology 
Series/Report no.: /79 (2017)
Issue Date: 15-Jul-2017
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-017-1142-8
Abstract: With at least four eruptions over the last 20 years, Sirung is currently one of the more active volcanoes in Indonesia. However, due to its remoteness, very little is known about the volcano and its hyperacid crater lake. We report here on the first measurements of gas and heat emissions from the volcano. Notable is the substantial heat loss from the crater lake surface, amounting to 220 MW. In addition, ~17 Gg of SO2, representing 0.8% of Indonesian volcanic SO2 contribution into the atmosphere, ~11 Gg of H2S, ~17 Gg of CO2, and ~550 Gg of H2O are discharged into the atmosphere from the volcano annually. The volatiles degassed from Sirung magmas are subjected to hydrothermal fluid-rock interactions and sulfide depositions, initiated by the disproportionation of SO2. These processes lead to distinct gas compositions and changing lake water chemistry (in the subcraters and the main crater lake). However, the occurrence of SO2-rich fluids and strong gas flux appear to highlight a rapid fluid transfer to surface, avoiding re-equilibration with lower temperature rocks/fluids in the conduits.
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