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Authors: Tardelli, A.* 
Pezzopane, Michael* 
Fagundes, P. R.* 
Venkatesh, K.* 
Pillat, V. G.* 
Cabrera, M. A.* 
Ezquer, R. G.* 
Title: Study of the F3 and StF4 Layers at Tucumán Near the Southern Crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly in Western South America
Issue Date: Mar-2018
Series/Report no.: /123 (2018)
DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024539
Abstract: The present investigation reports for the first time seasonal and solar activity variations of F3 and StF4 layers at the low-latitude station of Tucumán (26.9°S, 65.4°W; dip latitude 13.9°S), Argentina, by considering ionograms recorded from 2007 to 2015 by an Advanced Ionospheric Sounder-Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (AIS-INGV) digital ionosonde. Occurrences of F3 and StF4 layers are found to be higher during summer months, while they are almost nil in winter. Moreover, occurrences of F3 and StF4 layers show a solar activity dependence with higher values during high solar activity. The solar activity dependence of F3 over Tucumán is similar to that reported earlier for the low-latitude station of São José dos Campos, Brazil (dip latitude 14.1°S), but different than that reported for the near-equatorial station of Palmas (dip latitude 6.6°S), Brazil. On the other hand, the solar cycle dependence of StF4 layer is consistent with the one obtained at Palmas. This highlights the complex nature of electrodynamics characterizing the ionosphere from the magnetic equatorial to low latitudes. Moreover, as shown in previous studies, the StF4 layer is always preceded and followed by the F3 layer, and it shows a shorter lifetime than that of the F3 layer. During the considered period, 1812 days were analyzed and the F3 layer was found in 370 days (20.4%), while the StF4 layer was found in 41 days (2.3%). This means that the StF4 stratification is seen during 11% of F3 layer days.
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