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Authors: Martorelli, E.* 
Italiano, Francesco* 
Ingrassia, M.* 
Macelloni, L.* 
Bosman, A.* 
Conte, A. M.* 
Beaubien, S. E.* 
Graziani, S.* 
Sposato, A.* 
Chiocci, F. L.* 
Title: Evidence of a shallow water submarine hydrothermal field off Zannone Island from morphological and geochemical characterization: Implications for Tyrrhenian Sea Quaternary volcanism
Issue Date: 20-Dec-2016
Series/Report no.: /121 (2016)
DOI: 10.1002/2016JB013103
Keywords: gas geochemistry
submarine hydrothermalism
Quaternary volcanism
Pontine islands
Subject Classificationgeochemical characterization submarine vents
Abstract: Discoveries from multibeam bathymetry and geochemical surveys performed off Zannone Island (western Pontine Archipelago, Tyrrhenian Sea) provide evidence of an undocumented hydrothermal field characterized by ongoing fluid emissions and morphologically complex giant depressions located in shallow water (<150m water depth). Based on a detailed morpho-bathymetric study we identify the seabed morphologies produced by hydrothermal fluid emission activity. We recognize five giant depressions (length >250 m) that host pockmarks, mounds, small cones, and active fluid vents, which are interpreted as complex fluid-escape features developed both through vigorous-explosive events and steady seepage. Their spatial distribution suggests that the NE-SW trending faults bounding the Ponza-Zannone structural high and the shallow fractured basement are favorable conditions for the upward migration of hydrothermal fluids. Moreover, we performed a detailed geochemical study to investigate the source of the hydrothermal fluids. The geochemical signature of the collected fluids provides information of active CO2-dominated degassing with a significant contribution of mantle volatiles, with measured 3He/4He values>3.0 Ra that are similar to those recorded at Stromboli and Panarea volcanoes. The hydrothermal system produces volatiles that may originate from residual magma batches, similar to the Pleistocene trachytes cropping out in the SE sector of Ponza Island that were probably intruded in the shallow crustal levels and never erupted. The discovery of the Zannone hydrothermal field updates the record of active hydrothermal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, the recognition of several giant hydrothermal depressions characterized by a complex morphology is peculiar for the Mediterranean Sea.
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