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Authors: Cannata, Andrea* 
Di Grazia, Giuseppe* 
Giuffrida, Marisa* 
Gresta, Stefano* 
Palano, Mimmo* 
Sciotto, Mariangela* 
Viccaro, Marco* 
Zuccarello, Francesco* 
Title: Space-Time Evolution of Magma Storage and Transfer at Mt. Etna Volcano (Italy): The 2015-2016 Reawakening of Voragine Crater
Issue Date: 21-Feb-2018
Series/Report no.: /194 (2018)
DOI: 10.1002/2017GC007296
Keywords: Etna
Subject Classification04.08. Volcanology 
Abstract: The eruptions of December 2015 and May 2016 at Voragine crater were among the most explosive recorded during the last two decades at Mt. Etna volcano. Here we present data coming from geophysics (infrasound, LP, VLP, volcanic tremor, VT earthquakes, and ground deformations) and petrology (textural and microanalytical data on plagioclase and olivine crystals) to investigate the preeruptive magma storage and transfer dynamics leading to these exceptional explosive eruptions. Integration of all the avail- able data has led us to constrain chemically, physically, and kinetically the environments where magmas were stored before the eruption, and how they have interacted during the transfer en-route to the surface. Although the evolution and behavior of volcanic phenomena at the surface was rather similar, some differ- ences in storage and transfer dynamics were observed for 2015 and 2016 eruptions. Specifically, the 2015 eruptions have been fed by magmas stored at shallow levels that were pushed upward as a response of magma injections from deeper environments, whereas evidence of chemical interaction between shallow and deep magmatic environments becomes more prominent during the 2016 eruptions. Main findings evidence the activation of magmatic environments deeper than those generally observed for other recent Etnean eruptions, with involvement of deep basic magmas that were brought to shallow crustal levels in very short time scales (~1 month). The fast transfer from the deepest levels of the plumbing system of basic, undegassed magmas might be viewed as the crucial triggering factor leading to development of exceptionally violent volcanic phenomena even with only basic magma involved.
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