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Authors: Carlino, Stefano* 
Mirabile, Maurizio* 
Troise, Claudia* 
Sacchi, Marco* 
Zeni, Luigi* 
Minardo, Aldo* 
Caccavale, Mauro* 
Darányi, Virág* 
De Natale, Giuseppe* 
Title: Distributed-Temperature-Sensing Using Optical Methods: A First Application in the Offshore Area of Campi Flegrei Caldera (Southern Italy) for Volcano Monitoring
Journal: Remore Sensing 
Series/Report no.: /8 (2016)
Issue Date: 2016
DOI: 10.3390/rs8080674
Keywords: temperature; remote sensing; DTS; fiber optics; caldera; Campi Flegrei
Subject Classificationgeofisica marina
Abstract: A temperature profile 2400 m along the off-shore active caldera of Campi Flegrei (Gulf of Pozzuoli) was obtained by the installation of a permanent fiber-optic monitoring system within the framework of the Innovative Monitoring for Coastal and Marine Environment (MON.I.C.A) project. The system consists of a submerged, reinforced, multi-fiber cable containing six single-mode telecom grade optical fibers that, exploiting the stimulated Brillouin scattering, provide distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with 1 m of spatial resolution. The obtained data show that the offshore caldera, at least along the monitored profile, has many points of heat discharge associated with fluid emission. A loose association between the temperature profile and the main structural features of the offshore caldera was also evidenced by comparing DTS data with a high-resolution reflection seismic survey. This represents an important advancement in the monitoring of this high-risk volcanic area, since temperature variations are among the precursors of magma migration towards the surface and are also crucial data in the study of caldera dynamics. The adopted system can also be applied to many other calderas which are often partially or largely submerged and hence difficult to monitor.
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