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Authors: Kis, Boglarka-Mercedesz* 
Ionescu, Artur* 
Cardellini, Carlo* 
Harangi, Szabolcs* 
Baciu, Calin* 
Caracausi, Antonio* 
Viveiros, Fátima* 
Title: Quantification of carbon dioxide emissions of Ciomadul, the youngest volcano of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (Eastern-Central Europe, Romania)
Issue Date: 22-May-2017
Series/Report no.: /341 (2017)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.05.025
Keywords: dormant volcano
CO2 flux Total emission
Abstract: We provide the first high-resolution CO2 flux data for the Neogene to Quaternary volcanic regions of the entire Carpathian-Pannonian Region, Eastern-Central Europe, and estimate the CO2 emission of the seemingly inactive Ciomadul volcanic complex, the youngest volcano of this area. Our estimate includes data from focused and diffuse CO2 emissions from soil. The CO2 fluxes of focused emissions range between 277 and 8172 g d−1, corresponding to a CO2 output into the atmosphere between 0.1 and 2.98 t per year. The investigated areas for diffuse soil gas emissions were characterized by wide range of CO2 flux values, at Apor Baths, ranging from 1.7 × 101 to 8.2 × 104 g m−2 d−1, while at Lăzărești ranging between 1.43 and 3.8 × 104 g m−2 d−1. The highest CO2 focused gas fluxes at Ciomadul were found at the periphery of the youngest volcanic complex, which could be explained either by tectonic control across the brittle older volcanic edifices or by degassing from a deeper crustal zone resulting in CO2 flux at the periphery of the supposed melt-bearing magma body beneath Ciomadul. The estimate of the total CO2 output in the area is 8.70 × 103 t y−1, and it is consistent with other long (N10 kyr) dormant volcanoes with similar age worldwide, such as in Italy and USA. Taking into account the isotopic composition of the gases that indicate deep origin of the CO2 emissions, this yields further support that Ciomadul may be considered indeed a dormant, or PAMS volcano (volcano with potentially active magma storage) rather than an inactive one. Furthermore, hazard of CO2 outpourings has to be taken into account and it has to be communicated to the visitors. Finally, we suggest that CO2 output of dormant volcanic systems has to be also accounted in the estimation of the global volcanic CO2 budget.
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