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Authors: Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia* 
Troiano, Antonio* 
Fedele, Alessandro* 
Caputo, Teresa* 
Patella, D.* 
Troise, Claudia* 
De Natale, Giuseppe* 
Title: Electrical resistivity tomography imaging of the near-surface structure of the Solfatara crater, Campi Flegrei (Naples, Italy)
Issue Date: 2015
Series/Report no.: /77 (2015)
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-015-0910-6
Keywords: Campi Flegrei
3D resistivity tomography
Near-surface structure
Solfatara crater
Subject Classification04.02. Exploration geophysics 
Abstract: We describe the results from an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey performed inside the Solfatara cra- ter, located in the central part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) com- posite caldera. The Solfatara volcano represents the most ac- tive zone within the CF area, in terms of hydrothermal mani- festations and local seismicity. Eight dipole-dipole ERT lines have been measured with the aim of deducing a 3D resistivity model for the upper 80 m beneath the Solfatara. The results have allowed classification of the shallow structure below the crater into a low-resistivity (LR) class, up to about 4 Ωm, an intermediate resistivity (IR) class, from 5 Ωm up to 50 Ωm, and a high-resistivity (HR) class, from 60 Ωm onward. In order to solve the ambiguities arising in the interpretation of the nature of these bodies, a comparison has been done be- tween the 3D ERT model and the CO2 flux, soil temperature, and gravity maps over the same area. By combining all of these parameters, the whole LR body has been ascribed to a water-dominated geothermal basin and the HR body to a steam/gas-dominated reservoir. Finally, the IR class has been interpreted as a widespread background situation with inter- mediate character, where volatiles and condensates can coex- ist in the same volumes at variable percentages, coherently with the resistivity variation within this class. Since fluid dy- namics in the Solfatara crater change rapidly, ERT surveys repeated in the future are expected to be of great help in mon- itoring possible pre-eruptive changes, as well as in better fol- lowing evolution of the local geothermal system.
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