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Authors: Sulpizio, Roberto* 
Costa, Antonio* 
Wadge, Geoffrey* 
Title: Editorial: Stress Field Control of Eruption Dynamics
Journal: Frontiers in Earth Science 
Series/Report no.: /5 (2017)
Issue Date: 2017
DOI: 10.3389/feart.2017.00057
Abstract: The state of stress in the Earth's crust is a fundamental geophysical variable. That stress is transmitted across the boundaries between magma bodies and their host rocks, forming an undoubted potential causal link. But for almost all volcanoes we have no direct observational knowledge of the state of stress within and below them. We know, in general, that the 3D field of stress acting on a volcanic system can dramatically affect eruption dynamics controlling processes of magma storage and magma ascent to the surface. Stresses act at different scales, and both local to regional stress can significantly affect rock-magma mechanics in a very complex way because of nonlinear interactions between the different parts of the volcanic system and heterogeneity of the Earth's crust. A change in stress within the magmatic system can play a fundamental role in triggering or modifying the style of volcanic eruptions, and even reawakening a dormant system. There are many forcing agents of changes in stress, including earthquakes, erosion and landslides, deglaciation, and tidal effects. The local stress can change also as response of magma influx from deeper reservoirs and an increase of the magma/gas pressure. Such changes can occur on different time scales dictating variations in the behavior of a volcanic system. Change in local tectonic stress has been invoked as a trigger of large ignimbrite eruptions or for controlling the eruptive style of explosive eruptions. Sometimes volcano systems that are closely located may become active in chorus after strong earthquakes. Some studies suggest that volcanic eruptions are triggered if compressive stress acts at the magma system and “squeezes” out magma (Rikitake and Sato, 1989). Other studies suggest that horizontally extensional stress fields facilitate magma rise and thus encourage eruptions (e.g., Gudmundsson, 1990, 2006), or that fluctuating compression and extension during the passing of seismic waves trigger eruptions (Walter and Amelung, 2007; Watt et al., 2009). Stress-sensitive volcanic processes are generally not well understood and we urgently need new observational techniques and improved analytical tools to improve that understanding. All these considerations inspired the Research Topic on “Stress field control of eruption dynamics,” which aimed for a thorough discussion about the state of the art, new ideas, perspectives, and challenges of the interplay between stress fields and volcanic activity.
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