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Authors: Piscini, Alessandro* 
Carboni, Elisa* 
Del Frate, Fabio* 
Grainger, Roy Gordon* 
Title: A Neural Network Algorithm to Detect Sulphur Dioxide Using IASI Measurements
Issue Date: 10-Nov-2014
Series/Report no.: /3 (2014)
DOI: 10.4236/ars.2014.34017
Abstract: The remote sensing of volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2) is important because it is used as a proxy for volcanic ash, which is dangerous to aviation and is generally more difficult to discriminate. This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm that recognizes volcanic SO2 in the atmosphere using hyperspectral remotely sensed data from the IASI instrument aboard the Metop-A satellite. The importance of this approach lies in exploiting all thermal infrared spectral information of IASI and its application to near real-time volcanic monitoring in a fast manner. In this paper, the ANN algorithm is demonstrated on data of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption (Iceland) during the months of April and May 2010, and on the Grímsvötn eruption occurring during May 2011. The algorithm consists of a two output neural network classifier trained with a time series consisting of some hyperspectral eruption datasets collected during 14 April to 14 May 2010 and a few from 22 to 26 May 2011. The inputs were all channels (441) in the IASI v3 band and the target outputs (truth) were the corresponding retrievals of SO2 amount obtained with an optimal estimation method. The validation results for the Eyjafjallajökull independent data-sets had an overall accuracy of 100% and no commission errors, therefore demonstrating the feasibility of estimating the presence of SO2 using a neural network approach also a in cloudy sky conditions. Although the validation of the neural network classifier on datasets from the Grímsvötn eruption had no commission errors, the overall accuracies were lower due to the presence of omission errors. Statistical analysis revealed that those false negatives lie near the detection threshold for discriminating pixels affected by SO2. This demonstrated that the accuracy in classification is strictly related to the sensitivity of the model. The lower accuracy obtained in detecting SO2 for Grímsvötn validation dates might also be caused by less statistical knowledge of such an eruption during the training phase.
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