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Authors: Piscini, Alessandro* 
Amici, Stefania* 
Title: Fire detection from hyperspectral data using neural network approach
Issue Date: 21-Sep-2015
DOI: 10.1117/12.2194911
Keywords: imaging spectroscopy, wildfire, pattern, recognition, neural network
Abstract: This study describes an application of artificial neural networks for the recognition of burning areas using hyperspectral remote sensed data. Satellite remote sensing is considered an effective and safe way to monitor active fires for environmental and people safeguarding. Neural networks are an effective and consolitaded technique for the classification of satellite images. Moreover, once well trained, they prove to be very fast in the application stage for a rapid response. At flaming temperature, thanks to its low excitation energy (about 4.34 eV) , potassium (K) ionize with a unique doublet emission features. This emission features can be detected remotely providing a detection map of active fire which allows in principle to separate flaming from smouldering areas of vegetation even in presence of smoke. For this study a normalised Advanced K Band Difference (AKBD) has been applied to airborne hyper spectral sensor covering a range of 400-970 nm with resolution 2.9 nm. A back propagation neural network was used for the recognition of active fires affecting the hyperspectral image. The network was trained using all channels of sensor as inputs, and the corresponding AKBD indexes as target outputs. The neural network was validated on two independent data sets of hyperspectral images, not used during neural network training phase, in order to evaluate its generalization capabilities. The validation results for the independent data-sets had an overall accuracy round 100% for both image and a few commission errors (0.1%), therefore demonstrating the feasibility of estimating the presence of active fires using a neural network approach. Although the validation of the neural network classifier had a few commission errors, the producer accuracies were lower due to the presence of omission errors. Image analysis revealed that those false negatives lie at the edges of fire fronts, and probably due to the detection threshold selected for discriminating pixels affected by active fires, so demonstrating that the accuracy in classification is strictly related to the sensitivity of the chosen model. The proposed method can be considered effective both in terms of classification accuracy and generalization capability. In particular our approach proved to be robust in the rejection of false positives, often corresponding to noisy or smoke pixels, whose presence in hyperspectral images can often undermine the performance of traditional classification algorithms. In order to improve neural network performance future activities will include also the exploiting of hyperspectral images in the shortwave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, covering wavelengths from 1400 to 2500 nm, which include significant emitted radiance from fire.
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