Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/10868
Authors: Carcione, Jose M.* 
Currenti, Gilda* 
Johann, Lisa* 
Shapiro, Serge* 
Title: Modeling fluid injection induced microseismicity in shales
Issue Date: 2018
Series/Report no.: /15 (2018)
DOI: 10.1088/1742-2140/aa8a27
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/10868
Abstract: Hydraulic fracturing in shales generates a cloud of seismic—tensile and shear—events that can be used to evaluate the extent of the fracturing (event clouds) and obtain the hydraulic properties of the medium, such as the degree of anisotropy and the permeability. Firstly, we investigate the suitability of novel semi-analytical reference solutions for pore-pressure evolution around a well after fluid injection in anisotropic media. To do so, we use cylindrical coordinates in the presence of a formation (a layer) and spherical coordinates for a homogeneous and unbounded medium. The involved differential equations are transformed to an isotropic diffusion equation by means of pseudo-spatial coordinates obtained from the spatial variables re-scaled by the permeability components. We consider pressure-dependent permeability components, which are independent of the spatial direction. The analytical solutions are compared to numerical solutions to verify their applicability. The comparison shows that the solutions are suitable for a limited permeability range and moderate to minor pressure dependences of the permeability. Once the pressure evolution around the well has been established, we can model the microseismic events. Induced seismicity by failure due to fluid injection in a porous rock depends on the properties of the hydraulic and elastic medium and in situ stress conditions. Here, we define a tensile threshold pressure above which there is tensile emission, while the shear threshold is obtained by using the octahedral stress criterion and the in situ rock properties and conditions. Subsequently, we generate event clouds for both cases and study the spatio-temporal features. The model considers anisotropic permeability and the results are spatially re-scaled to obtain an effective isotropic medium representation. For a 3D diffusion in spherical coordinates and exponential pressure dependence of the permeability, the results differ from those of the classical diffusion equation. Use of the classical front to fit cloud events spatially, provides good results but with a re-scaled value of these components. Modeling is required to evaluate the scaling constant in real cases.
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