Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/10814
Authors: Rouwet, Dmitri* 
Hidalgo, Silvana* 
Joseph, Erouscilla P.* 
González-Ilama, Gino* 
Title: Fluid Geochemistry and Volcanic Unrest: Dissolving the Haze in Time and Space
Issue Date: Apr-2018
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/10814
Abstract: The heat and gas released by a degassing magma affects the overlying predominantly meteoric aquifers to form magmatic-hydrothermal systems inside the solid body of a volcano. This chapter reviews how fluid geochemical signals help to track the evolution throughout the various stages of volcanic unrest. A direct view into a degassing magma is possible at open-conduit degassing volcanoes. Nevertheless, in most cases gas is trapped (i.e. scrubbed) by abundant water, leading to the loss of the pure signal the magma ideally provides. Deciphering how magmatic gas rises through, reacts, and re-equilibrates with the liquids in the magmatic-hydrothermal system in time and space is the only way to trace back to the pure signal. The most indicative magmatic gas species (CO2, SO2–H2S, HCl and HF) are released as a function of their solubility in magma. The less soluble gas species are released early from a magma at higher pressure conditions (CO2) (deeper), whereas the more soluble species are released later, at lower pressures (SO2, HCl and HF) (shallower depth). When these gases hit the water during their rise towards the surface, they will be more or less scrubbed. Depending on the chemical equilibria inside the magmatic-hydrothermal system (e.g. SO2– H2S conversion, acidity), the gas that eventually reaches the surface will carry the history of its rise from bottom to top. Tracking volcanic unrest implies a time frame; the kinetics of magma degassing throughout the liquid cocktail inside the volcano impose the maximum resolution the volcano provides and hence the monitoring time window to be adopted for each volcano. Gas-dominated systems are “faster” and require a higher monitoring frequency, water-dominated systems are slower and require a lower monitoring frequency.
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