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Authors: Bottari, Carla* 
Albano, Matteo* 
Capizzi, P.* 
D’Alessandro, Andrea* 
Doumaz, Fawzi* 
Martorana, R.* 
Moro, Marco* 
Saroli, M.* 
Title: Recognition of Earthquake-Induced Damage in the Abakainon Necropolis (NE Sicily): Results From Geomorphological, Geophysical and Numerical Analyses
Journal: Pure and Applied Geophysics 
Series/Report no.: /175 (2018)
Issue Date: 2018
DOI: 10.1007/s00024-017-1653-4
Abstract: Seismotectonic activity and slope instability are a permanent threat in the archaeological site of Abakainon and in the nearby village of Tripi in NE Sicily. In recent times, signs of an ancient earthquake have been identified in the necropolis of Aba- kainon which dating was ascertained to the first century AD earthquake. The site is located on a slope of Peloritani Mts. along the Tindari Fault Line and contains evidence for earthquake-in- duced landslide, including fallen columns and blocks, horizontal shift and counter slope tilting of the tomb basements. In this paper, we used an integrated geomorphological and geophysical analysis to constrain the landslide. The research was directed to the acquisition of deep geological data for the reconstruction of slope process and the thickness of mobilized materials. The applied geophysical techniques included seismic refraction tomography and electrical resistivity tomography. The surveys were performed to delineate the sliding surface and to assess approximately the thickness of mobilized materials. The geophysical and geomor- phologic data confirmed the presence of different overlapped landslides in the studied area. Moreover, a numerical simulation of the slope under seismic loads supports the hypothesis of a mobi- lization of the landslide mass in case of strong earthquakes (PGA>0.3 g). However, numerical results highlight that the main cause of destruction for the Abakainon necropolis is the amplifi- cation of the seismic waves, occasionally accompanied by surficial sliding
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