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Authors: Mikhailov, A. V.* 
Perrone, Loredana* 
Title: Thermospheric parameters long-term variations retrieved from ionospheric observations in Europe
Issue Date: 2016
Series/Report no.: /121 (2016)
DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023234
Keywords: TRENDS
Subject ClassificationLong Term of Thermospheric parameters
Abstract: Recently developed method to retrieve thermospheric parameters (T-ex, O, O-2, and N-2) and the total solar EUV flux with lambda < 1050 angstrom from routine f(o)f(1) ionosonde observations has been applied to monthly median f(o)F(1) data on Rome, Slough/Chilton, and Juliusruh stations to analyze long-term trends in the thermospheric parameters. For the first time exospheric temperature and neutral composition were obtained for June noontime conditions over the period of similar to 5 solar cycles. The retrieved parameter manifested solar cycle and long-term (some solar cycles) variations with a rising phase in 1965-1985 and falling phase in 1985-2008. The retrieved thermospheric parameters were shown to be close to the MSIS-86 model ones exhibiting very small (< 1% per decade) and statistically insignificant linear trends estimated either over all 56 years or only over the years of solar minimum. No peculiarities in long-term variations in relation with the last deep solar minimum have been revealed. The source of the thermospheric parameter long-term trends is the Sun, i.e., they have a natural (not anthropogenic) origin and are mainly controlled by long-term variations of solar and geomagnetic activity.
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