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Authors: Danciu, Laurentiu* 
Şeşetyan, Karin* 
Demircioglu, Mine* 
Gülen, Levent* 
Zare, Mehdi* 
Basili, Roberto* 
Elias, Ata* 
Adamia, Shota* 
Tsereteli, Nino* 
Yalçın, Hilal* 
Utkucu, Murat* 
Asif Khan, Muhammad* 
Sayab, Mohammad* 
Hessami, Khaled* 
Rovida, Andrea* 
Stucchi, Massimiliano* 
Burg, Jean-Pierre* 
Karakhanian, Arkady* 
Babayan, Hektor* 
Avanesyan, Mher* 
Mammadli, Tahir* 
Al-Qaryouti, Mahmood* 
Kalafat, Doğan* 
Varazanashvili, Otar* 
Erdik, Mustafa* 
Giardini, Domenico* 
Title: The 2014 Earthquake Model of the Middle East: seismogenic sources
Journal: Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 
Series/Report no.: 8/16 (2018)
Issue Date: 2018
DOI: 10.1007/s10518-017-0096-8
Abstract: The Earthquake Model of Middle East (EMME) project was carried out between 2010 and 2014 to provide a harmonized seismic hazard assessment without country border limitations. The result covers eleven countries: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey, which span one of the seismically most active regions on Earth in response to complex interactions between four major tectonic plates i.e. Africa, Arabia, India and Eurasia. Destructive earthquakes with great loss of life and property are frequent within this region, as exemplified by the recent events of Izmit (Turkey, 1999), Bam (Iran, 2003), Kashmir (Pakistan, 2005), Van (Turkey, 2011), and Hindu Kush (Afghanistan, 2015). We summarize multidisciplinary data (seismicity, geology, and tectonics) compiled and used to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes over the investigated region. We describe the development process of the model including the delineation of seismogenic sources and the description of methods and parameters of earthquake recurrence models, all representing the current state of knowledge and practice in seismic hazard assessment. The resulting seismogenic source model includes seismic sources defined by geological evidence and active tectonic findings correlated with measured seismicity patterns. A total of 234 area sources fully cross-border-harmonized are combined with 778 seismically active faults along with background-smoothed seismicity. Recorded seismicity (both historical and instrumental) provides the input to estimate rates of earthquakes for area sources and background seismicity while geologic slip-rates are used to characterize fault-specific earthquake recurrences. Ultimately, alternative models of intrinsic uncertainties of data, procedures and models are considered when used for calculation of the seismic hazard. At variance to previous models of the EMME region, we provide a homogeneous seismic source model representing a consistent basis for the next generation of seismic hazard models within the region.
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