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Authors: Piersanti, M.* 
Alberti, T.* 
Bemporad, A.* 
Berrilli, F.* 
Bruno, R.* 
Capparelli, V.* 
Carbone, V.* 
Cesaroni, Claudio* 
Consolini, G.* 
Cristaldi, A.* 
Del Corpo, A.* 
Del Moro, D.* 
Di Matteo, S.* 
Ermolli, I.* 
Fineschi, S.* 
Giannattasio, F.* 
Giorgi, F.* 
Giovannelli, L.* 
Guglielmino, S. L.* 
Laurenza, M.* 
Lepreti, F.* 
Marcucci, M. F.* 
Martucci, M.* 
Mergè, M.* 
Pezzopane, Michael* 
Pietropaolo, E.* 
Romano, P.* 
Sparvoli, R.* 
Spogli, Luca* 
Stangalini, M.* 
Vecchio, A.* 
Vellante, M.* 
Villante, U.* 
Zuccarello, F.* 
Heilig, B.* 
Reda, J.* 
Lichtenberger, J.* 
Title: Comprehensive Analysis of the Geoeffective Solar Event of 21 June 2015: Effects on the Magnetosphere, Plasmasphere, and Ionosphere Systems
Issue Date: 2017
Series/Report no.: /292 (2017)
DOI: 10.1007/s11207-017-1186-0
Keywords: Solar trigger
Flare forecasting
Halo CME
SEP forecasting
Cosmic ray
Magnetospheric response to a CME
Ground response to a CME
Ionospheric response to a CME
Ionospheric polar convection
Abstract: A full-halo coronal mass ejection (CME) left the Sun on 21 June 2015 from active region (AR) NOAA 12371. It encountered Earth on 22 June 2015 and generated a strong geomagnetic storm whose minimum Dst value was −204 nT. The CME was associated with an M2-class flare observed at 01:42 UT, located near disk center (N12 E16). Using satellite data from solar, heliospheric, and magnetospheric missions and ground-based instruments, we performed a comprehensive Sun-to-Earth analysis. In particular, we analyzed the active region evolution using ground-based and satellite instruments (Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), Hinode, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), covering Hα, EUV, UV, and X-ray data); the AR magnetograms, using data from SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI); the high-energy particle data, using the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument; and the Rome neutron monitor measurements to assess the effects of the interplanetary perturbation on cosmic-ray intensity. We also evaluated the 1 – 8 Å soft X-ray data and the ∼1 MHz type III radio burst time-integrated intensity (or fluence) of the flare in order to predict the associated solar energetic particle (SEP) event using the model developed by Laurenza et al. (Space Weather 7(4), 2009). In addition, using ground-based observations from lower to higher latitudes (International Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET) and European Quasi-Meridional Magnetometer Array (EMMA)), we reconstructed the ionospheric current system associated with the geomagnetic sudden impulse (SI). Furthermore, Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) measurements were used to image the global ionospheric polar convection during the SI and during the principal phases of the geomagnetic storm. In addition, to investigate the influence of the disturbed electric field on the low-latitude ionosphere induced by geomagnetic storms, we focused on the morphology of the crests of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly by the simultaneous use of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, ionosondes, and Langmuir probes onboard the Swarm constellation satellites. Moreover, we investigated the dynamics of the plasmasphere during the different phases of the geomagnetic storm by examining the time evolution of the radial profiles of the equatorial plasma mass density derived from field line resonances detected at the EMMA network (1.5 < L < 6.5). Finally, we present the general features of the geomagnetic response to the CME by applying innovative data analysis tools that allow us to investigate the time variation of ground-based observations of the Earth’s magnetic field during the associated geomagnetic storm.
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