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Authors: Yuce, G.* 
Fu, C.C.* 
D'Alessandro, W.* 
Gulbay, A.H.* 
Lai, C.W.* 
Bellomo, Sergio* 
Yang, T.F.* 
Italiano, Francesco* 
Walia, V.* 
Title: Geochemical characteristics of soil radon and carbon dioxide within the Dead Sea Fault and Karasu Fault in the Amik Basin (Hatay), Turkey
Journal: Chemical geology 
Series/Report no.: /469 (2017)
Issue Date: 10-Oct-2017
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.01.003
Keywords: Dead Sea Fault
Karasu Fault
Amik Basin
Carbon Dioxide
Subject Classification04.07. Tectonophysics 
Abstract: The study area is close to the boundary of three tectonic plates (Anatolian, Arabian, and African plates) and is characterized by important tectonic lineaments, which consist mainly of the Dead Sea Fault (DSF), the Karasu Fault, and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) systems. To understand the origin of soil gas emanation and its relationships with the tectonics of the Amik Basin (Hatay), a detailed soil gas sampling was systematically performed. Together with CO2 flux measurements, N220 soil gas samples were analyzed for Rn and CO2 concentrations. The distribution of soil Rn (kBq/m3), CO2 concentration (ppm), and CO2 flux (g/m2/day) in the area appears as a point source (spot) and/or diffuses (halo) anomalies along the buried faults/fractures due to crustal leaks. The results revealed that Rn and CO2 concentrations in the soil gas show anomalous values at the specific positions in the Amik Basin. The trace of these anomalous values is coincident with the N-S trending DSF. CO2 is believed to act as a carrier for Rn gas. Based on the Rn and CO2 concentrations of soil gases, at least three gas components are required to explain the observed variations. In addition to the atmospheric component, two other gas sources can be recognized. One is the deep crust component, which exhibits high Rn and CO2 concentrations, and is considered the best indicator for the surface location of fault/fracture zones in the region. The other component is a shallower gas source with high Rn concentration and low CO2 concentration. Moreover, He isotopic compositions of representative samples vary from 0.94 to 0.99 Ra, illustrating that most samples have a soil air component and may have mixed with some crustal component, without significant input of the mantle component. Based on the repeated measurements at a few sites, soil gas concentrations at the same site were observed to be higher in 2014 than in 2013, which may be associated with the activity of the DSF in 2013–2014. This suggests that soil gas variations at fault zone are closely related to the local crustal stress, and hence are suitable for monitoring fault activities.
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