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Authors: Censi, P.* 
Raso, M.* 
Yechieli, Y.* 
Ginat, H.* 
Saiano, F.* 
Brusca, Lorenzo* 
D'Alessandro, W.* 
Inguaggiato, C.* 
Title: Geochemistry of Zr, Hf, and REE in a wide spectrum of Eh and water composition: The case of Dead Sea Fault system (Israel)
Issue Date: Mar-2017
Series/Report no.: /18 (2017)
DOI: 10.1002/2016GC006704
Keywords: groundwater
Rare Earth Elements
Subject ClassificationHydrosphere
03.02. Hydrology 
Abstract: Along the Jordan Valley-Dead Sea Fault area several natural waters in springs, wells, and catchments occur. The chemical-physical characters of the studied waters allowed for the first time the investigation of the Zr and Hf geochemical behavior, apart from REE, extended to a wide range of Eh, temperature, salinity, and pH conditions. The results of this study indicate that the dissolved Zr and Hf distribution in natural waters is strongly influenced by redox conditions since these in turn drive the deposition of Fe-oxyhydroxides or pyrite. In oxidizing waters saturated or oversaturated in Fe-oxyhydroxides (Group 1), superchondritic Zr/Hf values are measured. On the contrary, in waters where Eh<0 values occur (Group 2), chondritic Zr/Hf values are found. Superchondritic Zr/Hf values are produced by the preferential Hf scavenging onto Fe-oxyhydroxides that is inhibited under reducing conditions consistent with the water oversaturation relative to pyrite. Redox conditions also influence the amplitude of Ce and Eu anomalies. Oxidized Group-1 waters show negative Ce anomalies related to the oxidative Ce scavenging as CeO2 onto Fe-oxyhydroxide. Reduced Group-2 waters show positive Eu anomaly values consistent with the larger Eu2+ concentration relative to Eu3+ in these waters suggested by model calculations. The higher stability of Eu2+ with respect to its trivalent neighbors along the REE series can explain the above mentioned positive Eu anomaly values. The middle-REE enrichment observed in shale-normalized REE patterns of studied waters can be ascribed to carbonate and/or gypsum dissolution.
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