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Authors: D'Alessandro, W.* 
Bellomo, S.* 
Brusca, L.* 
Kyriakopoulos, K.* 
Calabrese, S.* 
Daskalopoulou, K.* 
Title: The impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on groundwater quality in an active volcanic/geothermal system under semi-arid climatic conditions: The case study of Methana peninsula (Greece)
Journal: Journal of geochemical exploration 
Series/Report no.: /175 (2017)
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
Issue Date: Apr-2017
DOI: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.01.003
Keywords: Hydrogeochemistry
volcanic aquifers
stable isotopes
Trace elements
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.03. Chemistry of waters 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.05. Gases 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.06. Hydrothermal systems 
Abstract: A comprehensive hydrogeochemical study of the cold and thermal groundwaters of the presently quiescent volcanic system at Methana was undertaken that involved collecting 71 natural water samples. Methana is a peninsula in Peloponnesus, Greece whose arid climate and hydrological situation is similar to that of the nearby small islands of the Aegean Sea. Similarly, the chemical and isotopic compositions of its water are dominated by the mixing of seawaterwith meteoric water both through direct intrusion and meteoric recharge. However, the simple mixing trends at Methana are modified by water–rock interaction processes, enhanced by the dissolution of endogenous CO2, which lead to strong enrichments in alkalinity, Ca, Ba, Fe and Mn. The thermal waters show very high salinity that is sometimes close to that of seawater [total dissolved solids (TDS)=8.5–40 g/l]. Although the cold groundwaters sometimes also show elevated TDS values (up to 6.3 g/l), their overall quality is acceptable due to the trace metal and nitrate contents mostly being below acceptable limits. While the saltiest groundwaters are not acceptable for human consumption, they are used for irrigation without exerting toxic effects on plants, which is probably due to the high permeability of the soils not supporting salt accumulation and salinity-resistant crops being cultivated.
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