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Authors: Giovanetti, G.* 
Monna, S.* 
Lo Bue, N.* 
Embriaco, D.* 
Frugoni, F.* 
Marinaro, G.* 
De Caro, M.* 
Sgroi, T* 
Montuori, C.* 
De Santis, A.* 
Cianchini, G.* 
Beranzoli, L.* 
Favali, P.* 
Title: Observing Volcanoes from the Seafloor in the Central Mediterranean Area
Issue Date: Apr-2016
Series/Report no.: 4/8 (2016)
DOI: 10.3390/rs8040298
Keywords: EMSO
volcanic ash clouds
seafloor observatories
stand-alone monitoring systems
volcano seismology
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.08. Instruments and techniques 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions 
Abstract: The three volcanoes that are the object of this paper show different types of activity that are representative of the large variety of volcanism present in the Central Mediterranean area. Etna and Stromboli are sub-aerial volcanoes, with significant part of their structure under the sea, while the Marsili Seamount is submerged, and its activity is still open to debate. The study of these volcanoes can benefit from multi-parametric observations from the seafloor. Each volcano was studied with a different kind of observation system. Stromboli seismic recordings are acquired by means of a single Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS). From these data, it was possible to identify two different magma chambers at different depths. At Marsili Seamount, gravimetric and seismic signals are recorded by a battery-powered multi-disciplinary observatory (GEOSTAR). Gravimetric variations and seismic Short Duration Events (SDE) confirm the presence of hydrothermal activity. At the Etna observation site, seismic signals, water pressure, magnetic field and acoustic echo intensity are acquired in real-time thanks to a cabled multi-disciplinary observatory (NEMO-SN1 ). This observatory is one of the operative nodes of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO; research infrastructure. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we speculate about deep Etna sources and follow some significant events, such as volcanic ash diffusion in the seawater.
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