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Authors: Calvari, S.* 
Intrieri, E.* 
Di Traglia, F.* 
Bonaccorso, A.* 
Casagli, N.* 
Cristaldi, A.* 
Title: Monitoring crater-wall collapse at active volcanoes: a study of the 12 January 2013 event at Stromboli
Issue Date: 19-Apr-2016
Series/Report no.: /78 (2016)
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-016-1033-4
Keywords: Stromboli volcano
Remote sensing
Visible and infrared webcam monitoring
Ground-based radar interferometry
Crater-wall collapse
Volcano instability
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: Crater-wall collapses are fairly frequent at active volcanoes and they are normally studied through the analysis of their deposits. In this paper, we present an analysis of the 12 January 2013 crater-wall collapse occurring at Stromboli vol- cano, investigated by means of a monitoring network com- prising visible and infrared webcams and a Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar. The network re- vealed the triggering mechanisms of the collapse, which are comparable to the events that heralded the previous effusive eruptions in 1985, 2002, 2007 and 2014. The collapse oc- curred during a period of inflation of the summit cone and was preceded by increasing explosive activity and the enlarge- ment of the crater. Weakness of the crater wall, increasing magmastatic pressure within the upper conduit induced by ascending magma and mechanical erosion caused by vent opening at the base of the crater wall and by lava fingering, are considered responsible for triggering the collapse on 12 January 2013 at Stromboli. We suggest that the combination of these factors might be a general mechanism to generate crater-wall collapse at active volcanoes.
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