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Authors: Mandarano, M.* 
Paonita, A.* 
Martelli, M.* 
Viccaro, M.* 
Nicotra, E.* 
Millar, I.* 
Title: Revealing magma degassing below closed-conduit active volcanoes: Geochemical features of volcanic rocks versus fumarolic fluids at Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy)
Issue Date: 2016
Series/Report no.: /248-251 (2016)
DOI: 10.1016/j.lithos.2016.01.026
Keywords: Helium isotopes, Fluid inclusions
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.05. Volcanic rocks 
Abstract: The elemental and isotopic compositions of noble gases (He, Ne, and Ar) in olivine- and clinopyroxene-hosted fluid inclusions have been measured for rocks at various degrees of evolution and belonging to high-K calcalkaline–shoshonitic and shoshonitic–potassic series in order to cover the entire volcanological history of Vulcano Island (Italy). The major- and trace-element concentrations and the Sr- and Pb-isotope compositions forwhole rockswere integratedwith data obtained fromthe fluid inclusions. 3He/4He in fluid inclusions iswithin the range of 3.30 and 5.94 R/Ra, being lower than the theoretical value for the deepmagmatic source expected for Vulcano Island (6.0–6.2 R/Ra). 3He/4He of themagmatic source is almost constant throughout the volcanic history of Vulcano. Integration of the He- and Sr-isotope systematics leads to the conclusion that a decrease in the Heisotope ratio of the rocks is mainly due to the assimilation of 10–25% of a crustal component similar to the Calabrian basement. 3He/4He shows a negative correlationwith Sr isotopes except for the last-erupted Vulcanello latites (Punta del Roveto),which have anomalously high He isotope ratios. This anomaly has been attributed to a flushing process by fluids coming from the deepest reservoirs, since an input of deep magmatic volatiles with high 3He/4He values increases the He-isotope ratio without changing 87Sr/86Sr. A comparison of the He-isotope ratios between fluid inclusions and fumarolic gases shows that only the basalts of La Sommata and the latites of Vulcanello have comparable values. Taking into account that the latites of Vulcanello relate to one of the most-recent eruptions at Vulcano (in the 17th century), we infer that the most probable magma which actually feeds the fumarolic emissions is a latitic body that ponded at about 3–3.5 km of depth and is flushed by fluids coming from a deeper and basic magma.
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