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Authors: Granieri, D.* 
Salerno, G.* 
Liuzzo, M.* 
La Spina, A.* 
Caltabiano, T.* 
Giudice, G.* 
Giuffrida, G.* 
Gutierrez, E.* 
Montalvo, F.* 
Burton, M.* 
Papale, P.* 
Title: Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America).
Issue Date: 2015
Series/Report no.: 14/42 (2015)
DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064660.
Keywords: SO2 flux, Clorine and CO2 at San miguel, cloud dispersion and hazard
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
Abstract: Abstract San Miguel volcano, El Salvador, erupted on 29 December 2013, after a 46 year period characterized by weak activity. Prior to the eruption a trend of increasing SO2 emission rate was observed, with all values measured after mid-November greater than the average value of the previous year (~310 t d 1). During the eruption, SO2 emissions increased from the level of ~330 t d 1 to 2200 t d 1, dropping after the eruption to an average level of 680 t d 1. Wind measurements and SO2 emission rates during the preeruptive, syneruptive, and posteruptive stages were used to model SO2 dispersion around the volcano. Atmospheric SO2 concentration exceeded the dangerous threshold of 5 ppm in the crater region and in some sectors with medium elevation of the highly visited volcanic cone. Combining the SO2 emission rate with measured CO2/SO2, HCl/SO2, and HF/SO2 plume gas ratios, we estimate the CO2, HCl, and HF outputs for the first time on this volcano.
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