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Authors: Spagnuolo, E.* 
Faenza, L.* 
Cultrera, G.* 
Herrero, A.* 
Michelini, A.* 
Title: Accounting for source effects in the ShakeMap procedure: the 2000 Tottori and the 2008 Miyagi earthquakes
Issue Date: Sep-2013
Series/Report no.: 3/194 (2013)
DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggt195
Keywords: Earthquake ground motions
Earthquake source observation
Computational seismology
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.10. Instruments and techniques 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.11. Seismic risk 
Abstract: Real-time seismology has made significant improvements in recent years, with source parameters now available within a few tens of minutes after an earthquake. It is likely that this time will be further reduced, in the near future, by means of increased efficiency in real-time transmission,increasingdatacoverageandimprovementofthemethodologies.Inthiscontext, together with the development of new ground motion predictive equations (GMPEs) that are abletoaccountforsourcecomplexity,thegenerationofstronggroundmotionshakingmapsin quasi-real time has become ever more feasible after the occurrence of a damaging earthquake. However, GMPEs may not reproduce reliably the ground motion in the near-source region where the finite fault parameters have a strong influence on the shaking. Inthispaperwetestwhetheraccountingforsource-relatedeffectsiseffectiveinbettercharacterizingthegroundmotion.WeintroduceamodificationoftheGMPEswithintheShakeMap softwarepackage,andsubsequentlytesttheaccuracyofthenewlygeneratedshakemapsinpredictingthegroundmotion.ThetestisconductedbycontrollingtheperformanceofShakeMap as we decrease the amount of the available information. We then update ShakeMap with the GMPE modified with a corrective factor accounting for source effects, in order to better constrain these effects that likely influence the level of (near-source) ground shaking. Weinvestigatetwowell-recordedearthquakesfromJapan(the2000Tottori, Mw 6.6,andthe 2008 Iwate-Miyagi, Mw7.0, events) where the instrumental coverage is as dense as needed to ensure an objective appraisal of the results. The results demonstrate that the corrected GMPE can capture only some aspects of the ground shaking in the near-source area, neglecting other multidimensional effects, such as propagation effects and local site amplification.
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