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Authors: Malik, J. N.*
Nakata, T.*
Title: Active faults and related Late Quaternary deformation along the Northwestern Himalayan Frontal Zone, India
Issue Date: 2003
Series/Report no.: 46 (5)
Keywords: active faults
Northwestern Himalayan Front
thrust and right lateralstrike-slip faults
Abstract: Numerous newly-identified traces of active faults in the Himalayan foothill zone along the HFF around Chandigarh, in Pinjore Dun, along the piedmont zone of the Lower Siwalik hill front and within the Lower Tertiary hill range reveal the pattern of thrust and strike-slip faulting, striking parallel to the principal structural trend (NNW-SSE) of the orogenic belt. The active Chandigarh Fault, Pinjore Garden Fault and Barsar thrust have vertically dislocated, warped and backtilted fluvial and alluvial-fan surfaces made up of Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments. West- and southwest-facing fault scarplets with heights ranging from 12 to 50 m along these faults suggest continued tectonic movement through Late Pleistocene to recent times. Gentle warping and backtilting of the terraces on the hanging wall sides of the faults indicate fault-bend folding. These active faults are the manifestation of north-dipping imbricated thrust faults branching out from the major fault systems like the Main Boundary Fault (MBF) and Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF), probably merging down northward into a décollement. The Taksal Fault, striking NNW-SSE, shows prominent right-lateral movement marked by lateral offset of streams and younger Quaternary terraces and occupies a narrow deep linear valley along the fault trace. Right stepping along this fault has resulted in formation of a small pull-apart basin. Fault scarplets facing ENE and WSW are the manifestation of dip-slip movement. This fault is an example of slip-partitioning between the strike-slip and thrust faults, suggesting ongoing oblique convergence of the Indian plate and northward migration of a tectonic sliver. Slip rate along the Taksal Fault has been calculated as 2.8 mm/yr. Preliminary trench investigation at the base of the Chandigarh Fault Scarp has revealed total displacement of 3.5 m along a low angle thrust fault with variable dip of 20° to 46° due northeast, possibly the result of one large magnitude (Mw 7) prehistoric earthquake. Taking into consideration the height of the Pinjore surface (20 to 25 m), tentative age (8.9 ± 1.9 ka), displacement during one event and average angle of fault dip (25°) gives slip rate of about 6.3 ± 2 mm/yr, a rate of horizontal shortening of 5.8 ± 1.8 mm/yr and recurrence of faulting of 555 ± 118 years along the Himalayan Frontal Fault.
Appears in Collections:04.07.04. Plate boundaries, motion, and tectonics
04.04.01. Earthquake geology and paleoseismology
Annals of Geophysics

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