Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/9476
AuthorsRouwet, D.* 
Sandri, L.* 
Marzocchi, W.* 
Gottsmann, J.*
Selva, J.* 
Tonini, R.* 
Papale, P.* 
TitleRecognizing and tracking volcanic hazards related to non-magmatic unrest: a review
Issue Date2014
Series/Report no./3 (20149
DOI10.1186/s13617-014-0017-3
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/2122/9476
KeywordsNon-magmatic unrest
Volcanic hazard
Forecasting
Volcanic surveillance
Event tree
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions 
AbstractEruption forecasting is a major goal in volcanology. Logically, but unfortunately, forecasting hazards related to non-magmatic unrest is too often overshadowed by eruption forecasting, although many volcanoes often pass through states of non-eruptive and non-magmatic unrest for various and prolonged periods of time. Volcanic hazards related to non-magmatic unrest can be highly violent and/or destructive (e.g., phreatic eruptions, secondary lahars), can lead into magmatic and eventually eruptive unrest, and can be more difficult to forecast than magmatic unrest, for various reasons. The duration of a state of non-magmatic unrest and the cause, type and locus of hazardous events can be highly variable. Moreover, non-magmatic hazards can be related to factors external to the volcano (e.g., climate, earthquake). So far, monitoring networks are often limited to the usual seismic-ground deformation-gas network, whereas recognizing indicators for non-magmatic unrest requires additional approaches. In this study we summarize non-magmatic unrest processes and potential indicators for related hazards. We propose an event-tree to classify non-magmatic unrest, which aims to cover all major hazardous outcomes. This structure could become useful for future probabilistic non-magmatic hazard assessments, and might reveal clues for future monitoring strategies.
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