Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/8131
AuthorsMikhailov, A. V.* 
Perrone, L.* 
Smirnova, N. V.* 
TitleTwo types of positive disturbances in the daytime mid-latitude F2-layer: Morphology and formation mechanisms
Issue DateJun-2012
Series/Report no./ 81-82 (2012)
DOI10.1016/j.jastp.2012.04.003
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/2122/8131
KeywordsIonospheric disturbances
Thermospheric parameters
ionospheric F2 region
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.99. General or miscellaneous 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.02. Dynamics 
AbstractMorphological analysis of foF2 variations for the periods of daytime positive disturbances over three ionospheric stations St. Petersburg (sub-auroral zone), Slough (middle latitudes), and Alma-Ata (middle-low latitudes) has confirmed the existence of two types of positive F2-layer disturbances with different morphology. Type I is referred to those followed by quiet or positively disturbed ionospheric conditions. They occur under low or moderate level of geomagnetic activity. Positive disturbances of type II are related to strong geomagnetic storms and they are followed by negative ionospheric disturbances. The two types manifest different occurrence frequency distribution and its dependence on latitude and level of geomagnetic activity. They also exhibit different duration and magnitude. This tells that two types of disturbances belong to different classes of events and may have different formation mechanisms. Millstone Hill ISR and digisonde hmF2 and foF2 observations for some selected periods of F2-layer positive disturbances of both types were analyzed. The original earlier developed self-consistent method to extract thermospheric parameters from ISR observations was used to estimate the contribution of various aeronomic parameters to the observed storm time F2-layer variations. Our analysis of a well-pronounced positive disturbances of type II on December 14, 2006 has confirmed the well-known concept by Pr ¨olss (1993a,b, 1995)—daytime midlatitude positive disturbances of type II are mainly produced by TADs and following them disturbed equatorward winds. However our calculations have shown that about half of the observed positive storm effect may be attributed to thermospheric parameter (neutral composition and temperature) variations. The type II of positive disturbances presents the first phase of a two-phase (positive/negative) ionospheric storm. For this reason their occurrence frequency distribution is similar to that for negative disturbances. The driving force for both disturbances is the same—the thermosphere heating in the auroral zone. Situation with positive disturbances of type I is more complicated. Electric fields on April 03, 2004, and neutral composition (mainly atomic oxygen) variations on April 11, 2000 were shown to be responsible for the observed positive storm effect. The difference in the two cases is presumably related with the localization (longitudinal sector) of the auroral heating.
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