Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/7940
AuthorsSpampinato, L.* 
Oppenheimer, C.* 
Cannata, A.* 
Montalto, P.* 
Salerno, G. G.* 
Calvari, S.* 
TitleOn the time-scale of thermal cycles associated with open-vent degassing
Issue Date8-Aug-2012
Series/Report no.4/74(2012)
DOI10.1007/s00445-012-0592-2
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/2122/7940
KeywordsThermal imaging
SO2 DOAS measurements
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
AbstractThermal imagery obtained with portable infrared cameras is widely used to track and measure volcanic phenomena. In the case of explosive eruptions, both air and ground-based thermal monitoring have enabled collection of data streams from relatively safe distances. Analysis of these data have enabled the characterisation of different explosive regimes, parameterisation of eruptive plumes, and assessment on the dynamics occurring in the shallow system. Here we explore the suitability of infrared imagers for investigating the short time scale eruptive behaviour of three basaltic volcanoes. We present high-time resolution thermal image data-sets recorded at Etna, Stromboli and Kīlauea volcano. At the time of observations, all three exhibited pulsed degassing. Signal processing of the mean apparent temperature time-series highlights four broad classes of cyclic temperature changes at the three volcanoes based on characteristic time-scales revealed in the periodograms: (1) <15 s, (2) ~20-50 s, (3) ~1-10 min, and (4) 12–90 min. Based on previous studies and integrating time-series results with qualitative visible and thermal observations and, in case of Kīlauea, also with SO2 column amounts in the plume, we hypothesise that short cycles relate mainly to bursting of overpressured gas bubbles at the magma surface, while long cycles might be associated with mechanisms of gas slug formation and ascent, and to the emplacement and drainage of a lava lake. At Kīlauea, slow fluctuations may reflect periodic variations of the lava lake surface level. The data from all three volcanoes reveal superimposition of degassing cycles of different frequencies, suggesting link through common magmatic processes and physical properties.
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