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AuthorsO'Dwyer, M.* 
Padgett, M. J.* 
McGonigle, A. J. S.* 
Oppenheimer, C.* 
Inguaggiato, S.* 
TitleReal-time measurement of volcanic H2S and SO2 concentrations by UV spectroscopy
Issue Date2003
Series/Report no.12/30(2003)
KeywordsRemote monitoring
Plume chemistry
sulphur species
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques 
AbstractSulphur speciation in volcanic gases acts as a major redox buffer, and H2S/SO2 ratios represent a valuable indicator of magmatic conditions and interactions between magmatic and hydrothermal fluids. However, measurement of H2S/SO2 even by direct sampling techniques, is not straightforward. We report here on application of a small ultraviolet spectrometer for real-time field measurement of H2S and SO2 concentrations, using open-path and extractive configurations. The device was tested at fumaroles on Solfatara and Vulcano, Italy, in November 2002. H2S concentrations of up to 220ppmm(400 ppmv) were measured directly above the Bocca Grande fumarole at Solfatara, and H2S/SO2 molar ratios of 2 and 2.4, respectively, were determined for the ‘F11’ and ‘F0’ fumaroles at Vulcano. In comparison with other optical techniques capable of multiple volcanic gas measurements, such as laser and FTIR spectroscopy, this approach is considerably simpler and cheaper, with the potential for autonomous, sustained hightime resolution operation.
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