Earth-prints repository, logo   DSpace

About DSpace Software
|earth-prints home page | roma library | bologna library | catania library | milano library | napoli library | palermo library
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/7110

Authors: Calabrese, S.*
D'Alessandro, W.*
Parello, F.*
Bellomo, S.*
Brusca, L.*
Title: First application of active biomonitoring techniques (moss-bags) to map the dispersion of volcanic emissions
Issue Date: 19-Sep-2011
DOI: 10.1474/Epitome.04.0701.Geoitalia2011
Keywords: biomonitoring
moss-bags
trace elements
Etna
Volcanic emissions
Abstract: Biomonitoring may be defined as the use of organisms and biomaterials (biomonitors) to obtain informations on certain characteristics of a particular medium (atmosphere, hydrosphere etc.). In particular, mosses accumulate large amounts of trace metals, making them good bioaccumulators to estimate atmospheric pollution. The moss-bags technique, introduced in the early 1970’, has become very popular. Such active biomonitoring technique is particularly useful in highly polluted areas and has been extensively used in industrial and/or urban areas to examine deposition patterns and to recognize point sources of pollution. The main objective of this study, which represents the first application of the moss-bags technique in an active volcanic area, was to test its efficacy in such environment. Complementary objectives were: to determine the different behavior and the geographic dispersion of volcanogenic elements emitted from Mt. Etna; to check the usefulness of a simpler analytical techniques (leaching instead of mineralization of the moss samples). A mixture of Sphagnum species was picked in a clean area, treated in laboratory (washed, dried and packed) and exposed in field for 1 month. Sites were chosen considering the prevailing wind at Mt. Etna’s summit. Milled samples were analyses for major and trace elements concentrations, after microwave digestion (HNO3 + H2O2), by ICP-MS and ICP-OES techniques. The same elements were also analyzed after simple leaching with deionized water (1/50 weight ratio for 4 hours). Leaching solutions were also analyzed by IC for F, Cl and SO4. Analyses clearly showed the efficacy of the moss-bags technique also in this peculiar environment. Several elements were strongly enriched in the mosses exposed to the volcanic emissions. The highest enrichment was measured close to the summit crater, but evidences of metals bioaccumulation were also found in down wind sites, at several km from the volcanic source. The accumulation factor (exposed/unexposed moss) allowed us to distinguish a group of elements (Tl, Bi, Se, Cu, As, Cd, S), which are highly mobile in the high temperature volcanic environment. Also alkali metals showed a significant increase in their concentrations, probably because of their affinity for the halide species carried by the volcanic plume. Also the simple and cheap leaching technique gave important indications on the plume dispersion pattern, especially for highly volatile elements (F, Cl, S, Tl).
Appears in Collections:Conference materials
04.08.07. Instruments and techniques
05.08.01. Environmental risk
05.02.01. Geochemical data
04.08.01. Gases
01.01.07. Volcanic effects

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormatVisibility
Abstract_Geoitalia2011.pdfabstract52.45 kBAdobe PDFView/Open


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.


Share this record
Del.icio.us

Citeulike

Connotea

Facebook

Stumble it!

reddit


 

Valid XHTML 1.0! ICT Support, development & maintenance are provided by CINECA. Powered on DSpace Software. CINECA