Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/6654
AuthorsMassa, M.* 
Marzorati, S.* 
Ladina, C.* 
Lovati, S.* 
TitleUrban seismic stations: soil–structure interaction assessment by spectral ratio analyses
Issue DateJun-2010
Series/Report no.3/8(2010)
DOI10.1007/s10518-009-9138-1
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/2122/6654
Keywordssite effect
soil-structure interaction
spectral ratio techniques
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.06. Surveys, measurements, and monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.10. Instruments and techniques 
AbstractIn this work we present and discuss the results of ambient seismic noise analyses computed at four sites where seismic stations, managed by the INGV (Italian Institute for Geophysics and Vulcanology) and the DPC (Italian Department of Civil Protection), are installed inside buildings. The experiments were performed considering different types of installation: sensor located at the bottom of a school, directly installed on rock (case 1); sensor located at the bottom of a medieval fortress, built on an isolate hill, directly installed on rock (case 2); sensor installed on the foundations of a medieval fortress, built on an isolate hill (case 3); sensor installed on the foundations of a school, built on alluvial deposits (case 4). Since recent works proposed the use of spectral ratio techniques to study the dynamic characterization of buildings, ambient seismic-noise measurements were performed for each site close to the stations (at the base of the structures), at the top of the structures and outside the buildings. In order to check the source of vibrations both horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVNR) and standard spectral ratio (SSR) techniques were applied. For all stations the results from ambient seismic noise were compared to those obtained from earthquakes (HVSR). In order to detect preferential directions of amplification, for each site average HVNRs and HVSRs were computed considering one azimuth for each set of 5°. We obtain different results for different types of installation: in cases 1 and 2, where the sensors are directly installed on rock, the vibrations of the structure do not affect the noise measures performed close to the stations, which show flat HVNR in the whole frequency range: in both cases the eigenfrequency of the building is given by the HVNR calculated from the measures performed at the top of the structure. In cases 3 and 4, where the sensors are installed on the foundations of the considered structures, both the amplification peaks between 5 and 9 Hz (case 3) and between 5.5 and 7 Hz (case 4) include the contribution of the free oscillations of the buildings. In particular, in case 4, HVNRs performed outside building highlight possible soil–structure resonance effects in case of an earthquake.
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