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Authors: Scandura, Danila
Title: Physical-Mathematical modeling and numerical simulations of stress-strain state in seismic and volcanic regions
Issue Date: 2009
Keywords: stress-strain state
volcanic areas
seismic area
Numerical modeling
Abstract: The strain-stress state generated by faulting or cracking and influenced by the strong heterogeneity of the internal earth structure precedes and accompanies volcanic and seismic activity. Particularly, volcanic eruptions are the culmination of long and complex geophysical processes and physical processes which involve the generation of magmas in the mantle or in the lower crust, its ascent to shallower levels, its storage and differentiation in shallow crustal chambers, and, finally, its eruption at the Earth’s surface. Instead, earthquakes are a frictional stick-slip instability arising along pre-existing faults within the brittle crust of the Earth. Long-term tectonic plate motion causes stress to accumulate around faults until the frictional strength of the fault is exceeded. The study of these processes has been traditionally carried out through different geological disciplines, such as petrology, structural geology, geochemistry or sedimentology. Nevertheless, during the last two decades, the development of physical of earth as well as the introduction of new powerful numerical techniques has progressively converted geophysics into a multidisciplinary science. Nowadays, scientists with very different background and expertises such as geologist, physicists, chemists, mathematicians and engineers work on geophysics. As any multidisciplinary field, it has been largely benefited from these collaborations. The different ways and procedures to face the study of volcanic and seismic phenomena do not exclude each other and should be regarded as complementary. Nowadays, numerical modeling in volcanology covers different pre-eruptive, eruptive and post-eruptive aspects of the general volcanic phenomena. Among these aspects, the pre-eruptive process, linked to the continuous monitoring, is of special interest because it contributes to evaluate the volcanic risk and it is crucial for hazard assessment, eruption prediction and risk mitigation at volcanic unrest. large faults. The knowledge of the actual activity state of these sites is not only an academic topic but it has crucial importance in terms of public security and eruption and earthquake forecast. However, numerical simulation of volcanic and seismic processes have been traditionally developed introducing several simplifications: homogeneous half-space, flat topography and elastic rheology. These simplified assumptions disregards effects caused by topography, presence of medium heterogeneity and anelastic rheology, while they could play an important role in Moreover, frictional sliding of a earthquake generates seismic waves that travel through the earth, causing major damage in places nearby to the modeling procedure This thesis presents mathematical modeling and numerical simulations of volcanic and seismic processes. The subject of major interest has been concerned on the developing of mathematical formulations to describe seismic and volcanic process. The interpretation of geophysical parameters requires numerical models and algorithms to define the optimal source parameters which justify observed variations. In this work we use the finite element method that allows the definition of real topography into the computational domain, medium heterogeneity inferred from seismic tomography study and the use of complex rheologies. Numerical forward method have been applied to obtain solutions of ground deformation expected during volcanic unrest and post-seismic phases, and an automated procedure for geodetic data inversion was proposed for evaluating slip distribution along surface rupture.
Appears in Collections:Theses
04.01.05. Rheology
04.03.01. Crustal deformations
04.03.08. Theory and Models
04.06.01. Earthquake faults: properties and evolution
04.06.04. Ground motion
04.07.03. Heat generation and transport
04.07.05. Stress
04.08.06. Volcano monitoring
04.08.08. Volcanic risk
05.01.03. Inverse methods
05.02.02. Seismological data
05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions
05.05.99. General or miscellaneous

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