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Authors: Piatanesi, A.*
Title: Caractérisation des sources sismiques par étude des tsunamis
Issue Date: 25-Oct-1999
Keywords: numerical modeling
source parameters
seismic hazard
seismic source
tsunami hazard
Abstract: Tsunamis are gravity waves propagating at the ocean surface: they are characterized by wavelengths that may vary from 10 to several hundred of km and by periods from 5 to 45 minutes. Tsunamis are generated, in most cases, by earthquakes that produce large vertical displacement of the ocean bottom and, less frequently, by submarine landslide and by volcanic explosions. The aim of this thesis is to show that tsunami modeling and observation can give complementary information on the tsunamigenic seismic source. The different phases of a tsunami (i.e. generation, propagation and impact on the coast) are modeled by means of numerical methods (both finite-elements and finite- differences) that solves the shallow water equations. The simulations of several tsunamis, for which observations are available, show that tsunami data (even of qualitative type) are able to constrain the epicenter, the orientation of the fault plane and the co-seismic slip distribution. Direct simulations allow us to validate source models for the Gargano 1627, Sicily 1693, Calabria 1783 and Messina 1908 (southern Italy) historical tsunamis. Furthermore we developed an inversion method, that makes use of near-field run-up heights measured after the event, to determine the co-seismic slip distribution on the source fault: we applied this method to the 1992 Nicaragua and to 1908 Messina (southern Italy) tsunamis. Finally, through the study of the last catastrophic tsunami, occurred in Papua New Guinea on July 17 1998, we propose a methodology that, by means of run-up data solely, allows for the determination of the position, dimensions and amplitude of the source.
Appears in Collections:04.06.09. Waves and wave analysis
04.06.99. General or miscellaneous
04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics

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