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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/500

Authors: Pfeiffer, T.*
Costa, A.*
Macedonio, G.*
Title: A model for the numerical simulation of tephra fall deposits
Title of journal: Journal of volcanology and geothermal research
Series/Report no.: 140
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2005
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.09.001
URL: www.elsevier.com/locate/jvolgeores
Keywords: Ash fall
Settling velocity
Computer model
Vesuvius 79 A.D.
Abstract: A simple semianalytical model to simulate ash dispersion and deposition produced by sustained Plinian and sub-Plinian eruption columns based on the 2D advection-dispersion equation was applied. The eruption column acts as a vertical line source with a given mass distribution and neglects the complex dynamics within the eruption column. Thus, the use of the model is limited to areas far from the vent where the dynamics of the eruption column play a minor role. Vertical wind and diffusion components are considered negligible with respect to the horizontal ones. The dispersion and deposition of particles in the model is only governed by gravitational settling, horizontal eddy diffusion, and wind advection.The model accounts for different types and size classes of a user-defined number of particle classes and changing settling velocity with altitude. In as much as wind profiles are considered constant on the entire domain, the model validity is limited to medium-range distances (about 30–200 km away from the source). The model was used to reconstruct the tephra fall deposit from the documented Plinian eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy, in 79 A.D. In this case, the model was able to broadly reproduce the characteristic medium-range tephra deposit. The results support the validity of the model, which has the advantage of being simple and fast to compute. It has the potential to serve as a simple tool for predicting the distribution of ash fall of hypothetical or real eruptions of a given magnitude and a given wind profile. Using a statistical set of frequent wind profiles, it also was used to construct air fall hazard maps of the most likely affected areas around active volcanoes where a large eruption is expected to occur.
Appears in Collections:05.01.05. Algorithms and implementation
Papers Published / Papers in press

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