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Authors: Costa, A.*
Chiodini, G.*
Granieri, D.*
Folch, A.*
Hankin, R. K. S.*
Caliro, S.*
Avino, R.*
Cardellini, C.*
Title: A shallow-layer model for heavy gas dispersion from natural sources: Application and hazard assessment at Caldara di Manziana, Italy
Title of journal: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems
Series/Report no.: 3/9 (2008)
Publisher: AGU and the Geochemical Society
Issue Date: 5-Mar-2008
DOI: 10.1029/2007GC001762
Keywords: dense gas dispersion
computational model
gas hazards
Caldara di Manziana
Abstract: Several nonvolcanic sources in central Italy emit a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2). Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in the presence of topographic depressions, the concentration of CO2, which has a molecular mass greater than that of air, can reach high values that are lethal to humans or animals. Several episodes of this phenomenon were recorded in central Italy and elsewhere. In order to validate a model for the dispersion of a heavy gas and to assess the consequent hazard, we applied and tested the code TWODEE-2, an improved version of the established TWODEE model, which is based on a shallow-layer approach that uses depth-averaged variables to describe the flow behavior of dense gas over complex topography. We present results for a vented CO2 release at Caldara di Manziana in central Italy. We find that the model gives reliable results when the input quantity can be properly defined. Moreover, we show that the model can be a useful tool for gas hazard assessment by evaluating where and when lethal concentrations for humans and animals are reached.
Appears in Collections:04.02.01. Geochemical exploration
04.08.01. Gases
04.08.06. Volcano monitoring
04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry
Papers Published / Papers in press

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