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Authors: Aiuppa, A.*
Bellomo, S.*
D'Alessandro, W.*
Federico, C.*
Ferm, M.*
Valenza, M.*
Title: Volcanic plume monitoring at Mount Etna by diffusive (passive) sampling
Title of journal: Journal of Geophysical Research (D)
Series/Report no.: 109 (2004)
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Issue Date: 2004
DOI: 10.1029/2003JD004481
Keywords: volcanic plumes
impact of volcanic emissions
sulfur and halogens chemistry
Abstract: This paper reports the use of diffusive tubes in determining HF, HCl, and SO2 in the volcanic plume of Mount Etna in an attempt to highlight the potential of this method in studying volcanoes. In a first application a network of 18 diffusive tubes was installed on Etna flanks, aimed at evaluating the atmospheric dispersion of the volcanic plume on a local scale. Results showed a monotonic decrease in volatile air concentrations with distance from the craters (HF from 0.15 to <0.003 mmol m3, HCl from 2 to <0.01 mmol m3, and SO2 from 11 to 0.04 mmol m3), revealing the prevalently volcanic contribution. Matching of SO2/HCl and HCl/HF volatile ratios with contemporaneous measurements at the summit craters validated the use of diffusive tubes in tracing the chemical features of a volcanic plume from remote locations. A first tentative assessment of dry deposition rates of volcanogenic acidic gases was also made, yielding 2.5 74 t d1 (SO2), 0.6 17 t d1 (HCl), and 0.02 0.6 t d1 (HF) and revealing the potential environmental impact of gas emissions. In a second experiment, carried out during the recent October 2002 to February 2003 eruption of Etna, diffusive tubes provided a continuous record of the chemical composition of the eruptive plume from a safe distance of 1 km from the vents, thus considerably decreasing the risks involved in sampling. This highlighted a clear time decrease in SO2 concentrations and SO2/HCl ratios, which was interpreted as due to progressive exhaustion of volatile degassing and eruption energy.
Appears in Collections:05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions
04.08.01. Gases
04.08.06. Volcano monitoring
04.03.06. Measurements and monitoring
Papers Published / Papers in press

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