Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/2672
AuthorsHolland, C. W.* 
Weber, T. C.* 
Etiope, G.* 
TitleAcoustic scattering from mud volcanoes and carbonate mounds
Issue Date2006
Series/Report no./ 120 (2006)
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/2122/2672
KeywordsSubmarine mud volcanoes
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.04. Marine geology 
AbstractSubmarine mud volcanoes occur in many parts of the world’s oceans and form an aperture for gas and fluidized mud emission from within the earth’s crust. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the latter, mud volcanoes are of interest in part because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range single-interaction scattering measurements from a mud volcano in the Straits of Sicily show scattering 10–15 dB above the background. Three hypotheses were examined concerning the scattering mechanism: 1 gas entrained in sediment at/near mud volcano, 2 gas bubbles and/or particulates emitted in the water column, 3 the carbonate bio-construction covering the mud volcano edifice. The experimental evidence, including visual, acoustic, and nonacoustic sensors, rules out the second hypothesis at least during the observation time and suggests that, for this particular mud volcano the dominant mechanism is associated with carbonate chimneys on the mud volcano. In terms of scattering levels, target strengths of 4–14 dB were observed from 800 to 3600 Hz for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3–5°. Similar target strengths were measured for vertically bistatic paths with incident and scattered grazing angles of 3–5° and 33–50°,
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