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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/10238

Authors: Slatcher, N.*
James, M.*
Calvari, S.*
Ganci, G.*
Browning, J.*
Title: Quantifying Effusion Rates at Active Volcanoes through Integrated Time-Lapse Laser Scanning and Photography
Title of journal: Remote Sensing
Series/Report no.: /7(2015)
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Issue Date: 10-Nov-2015
DOI: 10.3390/rs71114967
Keywords: lava flow; scoria cone; effusion rate; terrestrial laser scanning; time-lapse photography; Mt. Etna
Abstract: During volcanic eruptions, measurements of the rate at which magma is erupted underpin hazard assessments. For eruptions dominated by the effusion of lava, estimates are often made using satellite data; here, in a case study at Mount Etna (Sicily), we make the first measurements based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and we also include explosive products. During the study period (17–21 July 2012), regular Strombolian explosions were occurring within the Bocca Nuova crater, producing a ~50 m-high scoria cone and a small lava flow field. TLS surveys over multi-day intervals determined a mean cone growth rate (effusive and explosive products) of ~0.24 m3·s−1. Differences between 0.3-m resolution DEMs acquired at 10-minute intervals captured the evolution of a breakout lava flow lobe advancing at 0.01–0.03 m3·s−1. Partial occlusion within the crater prevented similar measurement of the main flow, but integrating TLS data with time-lapse imagery enabled lava viscosity (7.4 × 105 Pa·s) to be derived from surface velocities and, hence, a flux of 0.11 m3·s−1 to be calculated. Total dense rock equivalent magma discharge estimates are ~0.1–0.2 m3·s−1 over the measurement period and suggest that simultaneous estimates from satellite data are somewhat overestimated. Our results support the use of integrated TLS and time-lapse photography for ground-truthing space-based measurements and highlight the value of interactive image analysis when automated approaches, such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), fail.
Appears in Collections:04.08.07. Instruments and techniques
05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions
04.08.06. Volcano monitoring
Papers Published / Papers in press

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