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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/1007

Authors: Langridge, R.*
Campbell, J.*
Hill, N.*
Pere, V.*
Pope, J.*
Pettinga, J.*
Estrada, B.*
Berryman, K.*
Title: Paleoseismology and slip rate of the Conway Segment of the Hope Faultat Greenburn Stream, South Island, New Zealand
Issue Date: 2003
Series/Report no.: 46 (5)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/1007
Keywords: Hope Fault
paleoseismicity
ConwaySegment
Kaikoura
neotectonics
slip rate
recurrence
NZMS 260 sheet 031
Abstract: The Conway Segment of the dextral-slip Hope Fault is one of the fastest slipping fault segments along New Zealand s plate boundary, but has not ruptured co-seismically in the historic period and little paleoseismic data exist to constrain its large earthquake record. Two paleoseismic trenches were opened adjacent to Greenburn Stream near Kaikoura for the 2001 ILP Paleoseismology Conference. Both trenches were excavated into deposits ponded against an uphill-facing shutter scarp. Trench 1, dug through a cobbly soil and surface deposit was dominated by a thick fan/fluvial sequence that was radiocarbon dated at 4409 ± 60 C14 years BP (4844-5288 cal years BP) at the base of the trench. This trench exhibited evidence of complex deformation from many paleoseismic events. The most recent earthquakes are difficult to constrain due to a lack of cover stratigraphy on the fan deposits. However, the modern soil appears to be faulted and is covered by cobbles with a weathering rind-derived age of 220 ± 60 years. Trench 2, dug ?? 50 m to the west has an expanded sequence of the younger cover deposits. Paleoseismic event horizons have been recognised from the combined evidence of upwardterminating faults, offset and mismatched units, a sandblow deposit, and abrupt landscape change shown by the burial of paleosol surfaces that form the event horizons. Two paleosols underlying the modern soil are clearly faulted by two separate rupture events. A dome of sand interpreted as a liquefaction sandblow deposit overlies the lower paleosol (event horizon). Both paleosols are overlain by metre-thick debris deposits, interpreted as earthquake-induced rock avalanches that cascaded off the hillslope following Mw 7 + events. Four radiocarbon dates place some constraints on the timing of the three recent surface-rupturing events. The youngest and lowest date is 548 ± 60 C14 years BP (504-656 cal years BP) and occurs below the lower paleosol. It constrains the maximum duration of time in which the last 2 earthquake events occurred to be 545 years (1295-1840 A.D.). This is consistent with the average Recurrence Interval (RI) of 180-310 years that we determine using two independent paths. The soil record indicates that each event is separated by a significant period of time, comparable to the calculated RI. The most recent event is constrained between ca. 1780 A.D. ± 60 years, taking into account the dates from these trenches, a weathering rind age, and from stratigraphic correlation at the site. Event III probably occurred before 1220 A.D. A maximum dextral slip rate of 23 ± 4 mm/yr is calculated from the minimum fan age and the offset/deflection of a stream channel along the shutter ridge. In concert with the estimate of single event displacement (5-6 m), these results show that the Conway Segment of the Hope Fault is fast-slipping and has ruptured regularly as a result of large earthquakes prior to the European colonisation of New Zealand.
Appears in Collections:04.04.01. Earthquake geology and paleoseismology
Annals of Geophysics

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